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Female intimate partner violence

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Violence against women

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Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner is an important public health issue. In recent years, attention has focused also on intimate partner violence IPV during pregnancy due to its prevalence, adverse health consequences, and intervention potentials.

To determine the knowledge, experiences, and factors influencing IPV, including the controlling behaviors of male partners of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic ANC of a tertiary health facility in Sokoto. Materials and method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending ANC in a tertiary health facility in the Sokoto metropolis. They were selected using a systematic sampling technique, and a set of pretested questionnaire items was used for data collection.

Three-quarters of them were Muslims mostly from urban areas Majority of them responded correctly to questions on IPV; overall, up to Some of the controlling behaviors of male partners included always asking for permission before seeing friends and family members and also controlling their finances. Factors associated with IPV include tribe, place of residence, and partner consuming alcohol.

Majority of the respondents had good knowledge of IPV with about one-third of them ever experiencing it. Physical violence was the most prevalent form, and most of the victims did nothing about it. Violence against women is a major public health and human rights concern, with intimate partner violence and sexual violence being among the most pervasive forms of violence against women [ 1 ].

Although women can be violent in relationships with men, the most common perpetrators of violence against women are male intimate partners or ex-partners [ 2 ].

In recent times, however, violence against women is recognized as a global concern [ 3 , 4 ]. Intimate partner violence IPV is defined as threatened, attempted, or completed physical or sexual violence or emotional abuse by a current or former intimate partner. It describes the physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former intimate partner or spouse, and this type of violence can also occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples [ 4 ]. The World Health Organization WHO defines intimate partner violence as an act of coercion, physical abuse, or threat of violence in an intimate relationship [ 5 ].

Violence by an intimate partner is manifested by physical, sexual, or emotional abusive acts as well as controlling behaviors; although violence occurs in different forms and settings including the workplace, school, and community, violence at home by intimate partner violence is considered as the most prevalent form [ 6 ].

The act of physical violence includes slapping, kicking, pushing, and beating, as well as forced sexual intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion. Psychological abuse involves insults, belittling, constant humiliation, threats of harm, or controlling behaviors that consist of isolating a person from friends and families; monitoring their movements; and restricting access to financial resources, employment, education, or medical care [ 7 ].

In a multicountry study conducted in 10 different countries, a rate ranging from Intimate partner violence in pregnancy has been identified among the leading causes of maternal mortality in some developed countries like the United States and the United Kingdom [ 13 ]. Pregnancy-related IPV has been reported to be associated with high perinatal and neonatal mortality risk among exposed women compared to unexposed pregnant women [ 14 ].

Neonatal complications include intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, and low birth weight with extended intensive hospitalization [ 15 — 19 ]. Maternal consequences associated with IPV during pregnancy include abortions, miscarriages, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and placental abruption [ 20 ]. Although the prevalence of IPV is quite high in Nigeria, far fewer cases are reported.

This is probably because of the influence of religion and culture especially in many parts of Africa, where culture may allow couples to solve their problem by the use of violence, since most cases of violence against an intimate partner are not seen as wrong. Incidents are therefore, underreported because doing so is viewed as causing indignity to the husband and being disrespectful of family members and elders whose roles include arbitrating in such matters.

As a result of this, the true magnitude of the problem is relatively unknown and unexamined [ 22 — 24 ]. Despite increasing research on the prevalence and health effects of IPV during pregnancy from numerous countries around the globe, several gaps in knowledge still exist especially in low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria [ 25 ].

Though several studies have been conducted on IPV globally, in Nigeria there is still dearth of information on IPV; most of the studies conducted looked at IPV among women generally, but not much studies had been carried out among pregnant women in Sokoto State despite its effect on the health of the mothers and their babies. Systematic reviews were conducted on domestic violence, which included studies done in different parts of the world; however, studies among pregnant women were not included in the review.

The findings showed that relatively few studies and publications emerged from Africa compared to North America and Europe [ 26 ]. Furthermore, there are differences in cultural and religious patterns in the different zones in the country; even in the northern part of the country, there are differences in what people regard as IPV [ 27 ]. This study, therefore, is aimed at examining the knowledge of IPV, controlling behaviors of male partners, and experiences of intimate partner violence among women attending an antenatal clinic at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto.

Being a tertiary institution, the hospital provides specialized health care service to Sokoto State, the entire northwestern region of the country, and the neighboring Niger Republic. With a bed capacity of , UDUTH has staff strengths of over , which includes doctors, nurses, pharmacists, medical laboratory scientists, and physiotherapists spread across all departments providing curative, preventive, and rehabilitative services. Antenatal clinic service is provided on all the weekdays with an average daily attendance of pregnant women.

The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design, and all pregnant women presenting at the ANC clinic for booking or routine antenatal care and must have had a previous pregnancy inclusion criteria constituted the study population. Respondents were recruited into the study using the formula for estimating sample size in a population less than 10, [ 28 ]. A systematic sampling technique was used to select the study participants after calculating the sampling interval as follows:.

Based on the above sampling interval, the systematic sampling technique was carried out as follows: i The first participant was selected using simple random sampling carried out among the first three pregnant women that came for booking ii Thereafter, every third pregnant woman that came to the ANC clinic for booking was enrolled in the study until the required sample size was obtained. This was continued every day until the desired sample size was obtained.

Data collection using the instrument described above was done with the help of three medical students who were trained by the researchers on the objectives of the study, general principles of research ethics, interpersonal communication, and techniques of data collection. The data from the questionnaire was manually checked for completeness and entered into IBM SPSS version 20 for electronic data cleaning and analysis. Each correct response to a knowledge variable was awarded a score of one mark, and a zero mark was awarded to each incorrect response.

Continuous variables were summarized as mean and standard deviation, and categorical variables were summarized and presented as frequencies and percentages. This was followed by inferential statistics bivariate analysis , which were used to identify the major determinants of IPV during pregnancy. Participants were informed of the objectives of the study and were assured of the confidentiality of the information volunteered.

Informed verbal consent was also obtained from all the respondents. Up to three-quarters of them were Muslims mostly from urban areas Majority of the respondents About one-third of the respondents 84 The lifetime prevalence of IPV in pregnancy was About two-thirds of the respondents said the IPV they experienced occurred frequently, and 44 The most common forms of IPV were physical and sexual violence Regarding the reactions of respondents following the incidences, up to 46 Regarding factors associated with IPV during pregnancy, up to 31 Similarly, more than half 39 Other factors significantly associated with IPV in pregnancy were age , religion , SEC class of both partners, witnessing IPV during childhood , and consumption of alcohol and illicit substances by both partners.

Intimate partner violence is a reality that affects people in all walks of life and has remained a problem of public health importance. In this study, the mean age of the respondents was years, which is similar to what was reported in a study on workplace violence and sexual harassment in Ethiopia [ 29 ]. The similarity observed in both studies could be attributed to the fact that more than half of the respondents were below 30 years of age; moreover, up to More than two-thirds of the respondents in this study were Hausa Muslims, and this could be a reflection of the study area which predominantly comprises of Muslims and people of Hausa ethnicity.

However, there is also a notably significant proportion of other tribes including the Yoruba and Igbo and this is understandable as this study was conducted in a urban area which is mainly cosmopolitan. Those who had completed their tertiary education constituted the highest proportion of the respondents 96 The findings were comparable to studies carried out within and outside of Nigeria [ 2 , 11 , 30 ]. Studies conducted in Delta State and Abuja, Nigeria, also made similar observations [ 31 , 32 ].

Most of the respondents had correct responses to the question regarding forms of violence; however, questions relating to physical violence had more correct responses compared to questions on psychological and sexual violence. The high level of knowledge of the physical form of IPV observed in this study and other studies may likely be attributed to the influence of culture on the perception of what constitutes violence, such that most women especially in Africa only consider the physical form of IPV as violence but do not consider some other forms of IPV as violence.

Studies in rural Ethiopia and America on cultural difference in knowledge of violence among Hispanics, African American, and Polish residents also made similar observations where most of the women considered only physical violence as IPV [ 36 , 37 ]. This underscores the need to educate women on other forms of IPV in a culturally acceptable manner. This high proportion of respondents with good knowledge of IPV is not surprising because more than half of the respondents had up to tertiary level education.

Controlling behaviors reported by respondents include having to always ask for permission before seeing friends and family These findings are similar to what was reported in a study involving the use of secondary data from NDHS but lower than the This finding is in support of the feminist theory [ 43 ] and is also in favor of the hypothesis that controlling behavior is associated with increased likelihood of violence, most likely acting as a precursor to violence.

Close to one-third of the respondents had experienced IPV at least in one of their pregnancies, with a significant proportion This is in tandem with the finding from the study by Sigalla et al. The lower prevalence in this study could probably be due to the fact that this study looked at IPV in pregnancy as against the other studies that looked at lifetime prevalence both in and outside pregnancy.

Despite the fact that the prevalence of IPV observed in this study is lower than the lifetime prevalence observed in other studies, it still carries huge public health implications because IPV in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with a higher rate of maternal and foetal outcomes [ 19 , 47 — 50 ].

Of the various forms of IPV experienced during pregnancy, physical violence was the most common Studies conducted in Kano and Oyo States reported lower prevalences [ 40 , 51 ]. However, higher rates of physical violence were also reported in studies conducted in southwest Ethiopia, Tanzania, eastern Nigeria, Bangladesh, Ukraine, and Peru [ 45 , 50 — 54 ].

Close to two-thirds of the study subjects opined that they received kicks on the abdomen, beating, and choking whereas a smaller proportion These forms of physical violence were also reported from other studies within and outside Nigeria; for example, in a study conducted in Southwest Nigeria, the major types of physical violence experienced were being slapped A little above half Sexual violence was reportedly lower compared to physical violence probably because of the fact that issues of sex are still regarded as a taboo and should not be openly discussed [ 35 , 36 ].

In a similar study carried out in Lima, Peru, the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 8. Regarding the action taken by respondents after exposure to IPV, up to This could well be the reasons why most felt reporting was unnecessary and couples should rather handle their own issues as culture and religion advocates that women should learn to endure and be patient in all circumstances.

This is not surprising because according to the NDHS report, IPV in pregnancy is higher in Southwest Nigeria where Yoruba is the predominant tribe than in Northwest Nigeria which has the highest proportion of people of the Hausa tribe in the country [ 27 ]. This may not be related to the fact that the sociocultural milieu of Sokoto State, the study area, does not encourage the reporting of incidents of IPV. Also, more than half However, findings from a study in Southwest Nigeria and Ethiopia were at variance with what was obtained in this study, where those with formal education formed a larger proportion of those experiencing abuse [ 45 , 59 ].

Other factors significantly associated with IPV in pregnancy are age, religion, witnessing IPV during childhood, and consumption of alcohol and illicit substances by both partners. Evidence has shown that IPV occurred more among those whose partners consumed alcohol [ 51 ]. This suggests that if alcohol consumption by male intimate partners can be well controlled, then the prevalence of IPV may also be reduced significantly.

Findings from this study buttresses the fact that the occurrence of IPV is an interplay of different factors which may solely be due to differences in individuals, culture, and the society, as what is obtained in one setting, even though it may be similar, may not apply in another.

Domestic or intimate partner violence

The United Nations defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. Population-level surveys based on reports from victims provide the most accurate estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence.

Metrics details. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the lifetime and past month prevalence of physical and sexual IPV, economic abuse, emotional abuse and controlling behaviour among ever-partnered women in Mwanza, Tanzania.

Jump to navigation. We carried out this review to find out if asking screening all women attending healthcare settings about their experience of domestic violence from a current or previous partner helps to recognise abused women so that they may be provided with a supportive response and referred on to support services. We were also interested to know if this would reduce further violence in their lives, improve their health, and not cause them any harm compared to women's usual healthcare. Women who have experienced physical, psychological, or sexual violence from a partner or ex-partner suffer poor health, problems with pregnancy, and early death.

Intimate partner violence

Metrics details. Few population-based studies assessing IPV among randomly selected women and men have been conducted in Sweden. Hence, the aim of the current study was to explore self-reported exposure, associated factors, social and behavioural consequences of and reasons given for using psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence IPV among women and men residing in Sweden. Cross-sectional postal survey of women and men aged 18—65 years. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with exposure to IPV. Past-year IPV exposure rates were similar in women and men; however, earlier-in-life estimates were higher in women. Poor to moderate social support, growing up with domestic violence and being single, widowed or divorced were associated with exposure to all forms of IPV in men and women. Women and men tended to report different social consequences of IPV. Our finding that women reported greater exposure to IPV earlier-in-life but not during the past year suggests the importance of taking this time frame into account when assessing gender differences in IPV.

Preventing Intimate Partner Violence

Intimate partner violence IPV takes place in all settings, in all socioeconomic, religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. The overwhelming global burden of IPV is endured by women, and the most common perpetrators of violence against women are male intimate partners or ex-partners. However, women who are experiencing IPV often do not see themselves as abused. For example, a study found that women were up to ten times more likely to report depression and seventeen times more likely to report anxiety if they were in violent relationships. Because of this, it is important for women to understand what IPV looks like and what resources are available to someone experiencing IPV and looking for help.

Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner is an important public health issue.

The information and resources listed here can be easily adapted to other groups and settings. It is vital for all staff employed by health, behavioral health, and integrated care organizations to understand the nature and impact of trauma and how to use principles and practices that can promote recovery and healing: Trauma-Informed Approaches. In addition to information and resources on IPV, this page provides links to resources on Trauma and Trauma-Informed Approaches , as well as Suicide Prevention , that we encourage you to explore.


Intimate partner violence IPV is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. The most extreme form of such violence may be termed battering , intimate terrorism , coercive controlling violence , or simply coercive control , in which one person is violent and controlling; this is generally perpetrated by men against women, and is the most likely of the types to require medical services and the use of a women's shelter. The most common but less injurious form of intimate partner violence is situational couple violence also known as situational violence , which is conducted by individuals of both genders nearly equally, [5] [6] [7] and is more likely to occur among younger couples, including adolescents see teen dating violence and those of college age.

Intimate partner violence IPV is abuse or aggression that occurs in a close relationship. IPV can vary in how often it happens and how severe it is. It can range from one episode of violence that could have lasting impact to chronic and severe episodes over multiple years. IPV includes four types of behavior:. Several types of IPV behaviors can occur together.

Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings

Domestic violence is a serious threat for many women. Know the signs of an abusive relationship and how to leave a dangerous situation. Your partner apologizes and says the hurtful behavior won't happen again — but you fear it will. At times you wonder whether you're imagining the abuse, yet the emotional or physical pain you feel is real. If this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence — also called intimate partner violence — occurs between people in an intimate relationship.

PDF | A review of the research literature indicates that female intimate partner violence (IPV) is a frequent as male IPV. It is just as severe and has | Find, read.

Read terms. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence IPV is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death. Although women of all ages may experience IPV, it is most prevalent among women of reproductive age and contributes to gynecologic disorders, pregnancy complications, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV.

Intimate Partner Violence







Comments: 1
  1. Faelkis

    In my opinion it only the beginning. I suggest you to try to look in

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